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Research Trends in Lead-Free Soldering in the U.S.: NCMS Lead-Solder Project



I Artaki, D Noctor, C Desantis, W Desaulnier, L Felton, M Palmer, J Felty, J Greaves, C A. Handwerker, J D. Mather, S Schroeder, D Napp, TG Y. Pan, J Rosser, P Vianco, G Whitten, Y Zhu


In 1997, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences Lead Free Solder Project carried out by a consortium of 11 industrial corporations, academic institutions, and national laboratories completed its four year program to identify and evaluate alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solder. Participating organizations were AT&T/Lucent Technologies, the Navy's Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF), Ford Motor Company, GM/Delco Electronics, GM/Hughes Aircraft, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), Rensellaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Rockwell International, Sandia National Laboratories, Texas Instruments and United Technologies/Hamilton Standard. The goal of the project was to determine whether safe, reliable, non-toxic, and cost-effective substitutes exist for lead-bearing solders in electronics manufacturing. To find an alternative to lead in solders requires gaining knowledge equivalent to the knowledge base already in existence for lead-bearing solders. The production of durable, reliable, safe, and affordable electronic products with lead-free solders requires the manufacturer to understand material properties, manufacturing processes and equipment, toxicological effects, alloy cost and long-term availability, and reliability. This talk summarized the major results of this multiyear research program, including manufacturing and reliability trials, and studies of the root causes of fillet lifting in plated through hole joints. The following text is an abridged version of the Executive Summary from the Final Report produced by the NCMS Lead-Free Solder Project; the complete report can be obtained from NCMS.
Proceedings Title
IPC Technical Conference Proceedings, 1999
Conference Dates
October 25-28, 1999
Conference Location
Conference Title
Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits Technical Symposium


electronics manufacturing, lead-free solders, manufacturing infrastructure, solderability, solders


Artaki, I. , Noctor, D. , Desantis, C. , Desaulnier, W. , Felton, L. , Palmer, M. , Felty, J. , Greaves, J. , Handwerker, C. , Mather, J. , Schroeder, S. , Napp, D. , Pan, T. , Rosser, J. , Vianco, P. , Whitten, G. and Zhu, Y. (1999), Research Trends in Lead-Free Soldering in the U.S.: NCMS Lead-Solder Project, IPC Technical Conference Proceedings, 1999, Undefined (Accessed April 16, 2024)
Created September 30, 1999, Updated October 12, 2021