Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Replacement of Coarse Cement Particles by Inert Fillers in Low w/c Ratio Concretes II: Experimental Validation



Dale P. Bentz


Previously, it has been suggested that in low water-to-cement ratio (w/c) concretes, the coarser cement particles could be replaced by an inert filer with little loss in performance in terms of hydration and strength development. This communication presents the results of an experimental study conducted to validate this hypothesis, using a coarse limestone filler and a classified cement. The cement and limestone powders were both classified with a cutoff diameter of about 30 um. The coarse limestone was then blended with the fine cement and water-to-solids ratio=0.3 pastes and mortars were prepared to compare to reference (original cement) systems. The paste results for chemical shrinkage were consistent with a simple dilution of the cement by the limestone, and also with the results predicted by the CEMHYD3D hydration model. In mortars, the predicted compressive strength loss in the filled system at 7 d was consistent with model predictions and furthermore, at 56 d, no detectable difference in strength was measured. Thus, this study further supports the idea that coarse limestones could be used to replace equivalent size cement particles in low w/c concretes with little loss in hydration and strength performance.
Cement and Concrete Research
No. 1


blended cements, compressive strength, hydration, modeling, particle size distribution


Bentz, D. (2005), Replacement of Coarse Cement Particles by Inert Fillers in Low w/c Ratio Concretes II: Experimental Validation, Cement and Concrete Research, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 1, 2005, Updated February 19, 2017