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Recommendation for Stateful Hash-Based Signature Schemes



David Cooper, Daniel Apon, Quynh H. Dang, Michael S. Davidson, Morris Dworkin, Carl Miller


This recommendation specifies two algorithms that can be used to generate a digital signature, both of which are stateful hash-based signature schemes: the Leighton-Micali Signature (LMS) system and the eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme (XMSS), along with their multi-tree variants, the Hierarchical Signature System (HSS) and multi-tree XMSS (XMSSMT).
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 800-208
Report Number


cryptography, digital signatures, HSS, LMS, post-quantum cryptography, PQC, stateful hash-based signatures, XMSS, XMSS-MT.


Cooper, D. , Apon, D. , Dang, Q. , Davidson, M. , Dworkin, M. and Miller, C. (2020), Recommendation for Stateful Hash-Based Signature Schemes, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 12, 2024)


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Created October 28, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021