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Recent progress in spectroscopy of tungsten



Alexander Kramida


This contribution reviews experimental and theoretical work on spectroscopy of tungsten published since the last critical compilation of the energy levels and spectral lines of highly ionized tungsten [K09]. Since then, 15 new experimental studies were published, which resulted in new identifications and/or significantly improved wavelengths of spectral lines and energy levels of Li-like through As-like and Pm-like tungsten. Most of the measurements were made using electron-beam ion traps (EBITs). Two laser-spectroscopy studies resulted in new measurements of radiative lifetimes and transition probabilities of W II and W III. A few tens of theoretical studies of tungsten spectra were published since 2008. One of the most important of them contains a new theoretical interpretation of the odd-parity energy levels of neutral tungsten. This enabled a calculation of radiative transition rates. In another study, an extended calculation and collisional-radiative modeling of the spectra of Rh-like through Rb-like ions, W29+–W37+ resulted in a revised interpretation of the observed spectra. A new high-precision calculation of the spectrum of Pm-like W13+ sheds some light on the complex electronic structure of this ion and identifies some experimentally observed transitions. A number of high-precision calculations of energy levels, transition wavelengths and radiative rates were reported for highly ionized spectra, such as Yb-like, Ag-like, Ga-like, Zn-like, Ni-like, Ca-like, Al-like, Mg-like, Na-like, Ne-like, B-like, and Be-like. These developments are reviewed; revised and extended tables of energy levels and spectral lines of highly ionized tungsten are presented.
Canadian Journal of Physics


Critical compilation, tungsten, wavelengths, energy levels, atomic spectra


Kramida, A. (2011), Recent progress in spectroscopy of tungsten, Canadian Journal of Physics, [online],, (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created May 20, 2011, Updated April 7, 2024