Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Quantum mechanical effects in plasmonic structures with subnanometre gaps



Wenqi Zhu, Ruben Esteban, Andrei G. Borisov, Jeremy J. Baumberg, Peter Nordlander, Henri J. Lezec, Javier Aizpurua, Kenneth B. Crozier


Metal nanostructures with nanogap features have proven highly effective as building blocks for plasmonic systems as they can provide a wide tuning range of operating frequencies and large near-field enhancements. It has recently become apparent that quantum mechanical effects such as nonlocality and electron tunnelling become important as the gap separations approach the subnanometre length-scale. Such quantum effects challenge the classical picture of nanogap plasmons and have stimulated a number of theoretical and experimental studies. In this review, we outline the major findings of these efforts, and discuss remaining challenges and future directions.
Nature Communications


Zhu, W. , Esteban, R. , Borisov, A. , Baumberg, J. , Nordlander, P. , Lezec, H. , Aizpurua, J. and Crozier, K. (2016), Quantum mechanical effects in plasmonic structures with subnanometre gaps, Nature Communications, [online], (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created June 3, 2016, Updated November 10, 2018