We present time-domain electrical measurements and simulations of the quantized voltage pulses that are generated from series-connected Josephson junction (JJ) arrays. The transmission delay of the JJ array can lead to a broadening of the net output pulse, depending on the direction of the output pulse propagation relative to the bias pulse. To demonstrate this, we compare time-domain measurements of output pulses from radio-frequency Josephson ArbitraryWaveform Synthesizer (RFJAWS) circuits fabricated with two different output measurement configurations, so that the backward-propagating and forwardpropagating pulses can be measured. Measurements were made on arrays with 1200 and 3600 JJs and show that the net backward-propagating output pulse is broadened by timing delays in the JJ array while the net forward-propagating output pulse is insensitive to delay effects and can theoretically be further scaled to longer JJ array lengths without output pulse broadening. These measurements match well with simulations and confirm the expectation that the net output pulses arise from the time-delayed superposition of individual JJ output pulses from the series array of JJs. The measurements and analysis shown here have important implications for the realization of RF-JAWS circuits to be used as quantum-based reference sources for communications metrology.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Digital-analog conversion, Josephson junction arrays, quantization, power measurement, signal synthesis, superconducting integrated circuits, superconducting devices.