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Quantifying and Suppressing Proton Intercalation to Enable High-Voltage Zn-Ion Batteries



Fei Wang, Lauren E. Blanc, Qin Li, Antonio Faraone, Xiao Ji, Huaiyu H. Chen-Mayer, Rick L. Paul, Joseph Dura, Enyuan Hu, Kang Xu, Linda F. Nazar, Chunsheng Wang


We explore the Zn-ion intercalation mechanisms/interfacial dynamics of VPO4F and quantify the water dynamics in water-in-salt (WISE) and hybrid aqueous-non aqueous electrolytes (HANEs). We demonstrate that H+ intercalation dominates electrochemical activity during discharge of oxide-based cathode materials in aqueous media due to the hydroxylated nature of the interface. Such H+ electrochemistry diminishes low-rate and/or long-term electrochemical performance and inhibits implementation for practical applications. Quantifications of the water dynamic in various electrolytes are demonstrated for the first time. Detailed investigations of water dynamic in various WISE and HANEs systems allowed for the design of an electrolyte that enables increased aqueous anodic stability and suppresses water/proton activity during discharge. Tuning Zn2+/H+ intercalation kinetics enables both a high voltage (1.9 V) and long-lasting aqueous zinc-ion battery: Zn|Zn(OTf)2·nH2O-PC|ZnxVPO4F.
Advanced Energy Materials


Wang, F. , Blanc, L. , Li, Q. , Faraone, A. , Ji, X. , Chen-Mayer, H. , Paul, R. , Dura, J. , Hu, E. , Xu, K. , Nazar, L. and Wang, C. (2021), Quantifying and Suppressing Proton Intercalation to Enable High-Voltage Zn-Ion Batteries, Advanced Energy Materials (Accessed June 17, 2024)


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Created November 3, 2021, Updated February 14, 2022