Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Precision high-value resistance scaling with a two-terminal cryogenic current comparator



Randolph E. Elmquist, George R. Jones, Felipe L. Hernandez-Marquez, Marcos Bierzychudek


We describe a cryogenic two-terminal high-resistance bridge and its application in precision resistance scaling from the quantized Hall resistance (QHR) at RH = RK/2 = 12 906.4035 _ to decade resistance standards with values between 1 M_ and 1 G_. The design minimizes lead resistance errors with multiterminal connections to the QHR device. A single variable voltage source and resistive ratio windings are utilized to achieve excellent dynamic stability, which is not readily obtained in low-current measurements with conventional cryogenic current comparators (CCCs). Prototypes of his bridge have been verified by a successful international comparison of high-resistance scaling using two-terminal CCCs in the national metrology institutes of Argentina, Mexico, and the United States.
Review of Scientific Instruments


electrical resistance standard, quantized Hall resistance, national metrology institute, cryogenic current comparator, key comparison


Elmquist, R. , Jones, G. , Hernandez-Marquez, F. and Bierzychudek, M. (2014), Precision high-value resistance scaling with a two-terminal cryogenic current comparator, Review of Scientific Instruments, [online], (Accessed May 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created March 1, 2014, Updated February 19, 2017