Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Power Dependence of the Shift Caused by Spurious Spectral Components in Atomic Fountain



Filippo Levi, Jon H. Shirley, Thomas P. Heavner, Dai Yu, Steven R. Jefferts


In this paper we analyze the behavior of the frequency shift caused by spurious spectral component in the microwave spectrum against variation of the excitation microwave field. The theory of the shift caused by the presence of spurs in the microwave spectrum was investigated in depth over many years, however for historical reasons the behavior was never analyzed when microwave power is varied far above optimum. The theoretical predictions are significantly different from the thermal beam case. Furthermore the pulsed operation of a fountain, with generally a well defined cycle time, set some new constraints on the size of carrier sidebands even when they are symmetric.
Proceedings Title
Proc. 2006 EFTF Conf.
Conference Dates
March 27-30, 2006
Conference Location
Braunschweig, GE


atomic fountain, frequency shift, microwave spectrum


Levi, F. , Shirley, J. , Heavner, T. , Yu, D. and Jefferts, S. (2006), Power Dependence of the Shift Caused by Spurious Spectral Components in Atomic Fountain, Proc. 2006 EFTF Conf., Braunschweig, GE, [online], (Accessed February 28, 2024)
Created March 27, 2006, Updated February 17, 2017