Physical Modeling of Intumescent Fire Retardant Polymers
Kathryn M. Butler
Intumescent chemical systems are designed to swell into a thick, robust foam upon exposure to heat, protecting the underlying material from fire by providing a physical barrier to heat and mass transfer. The mechanisms determining the fire-resistant properties of these materials are not well understood. Various approaches to modeling intumescent behavior are reviewed. A three-dimensional model that incorporates physical and chemical phenomena at the scale of a single bubble is described.