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Physical Modeling of Intumescent Fire Retardant Polymers



Kathryn M. Butler


Intumescent chemical systems are designed to swell into a thick, robust foam upon exposure to heat, protecting the underlying material from fire by providing a physical barrier to heat and mass transfer. The mechanisms determining the fire-resistant properties of these materials are not well understood. Various approaches to modeling intumescent behavior are reviewed. A three-dimensional model that incorporates physical and chemical phenomena at the scale of a single bubble is described.
Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology
Publisher Info
, Washington, DC


fire retardants, intumescence, intumescent coatings, fire resistant materials, foam barriers, numerical analysis


Butler, K. (1997), Physical Modeling of Intumescent Fire Retardant Polymers, , Washington, DC, [online], (Accessed July 24, 2024)


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Created January 1, 1997, Updated February 19, 2017