Photopolymerization Kinetics of Methacrylate Dental Resins
Sabine H. Dickens, J W. Stansbury, Kwang-Woo Choi, C J. Floyd
The photopolymerization kinetics of typical dental dimethacrylate monomers were studied by differential photo-calorimetry. Increasing proportions of the low viscous diluent monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were added to either Bis-GMA (2,2-bis[p-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methacryloxypropoxy)phenylene]propane), EBPADMA (ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate) or UDMA (1,6-bis(methacryloxy-2-ethoxycarbonylamino)-2,4,4-trimethylhexane) to provide three base resins that differed in their H-bonding potential and therefore, resulted in compositions covering a broad range of viscosities. When compared at similar diluent concentrations, UDMA resins were significantly more reactive than Bis-GMA and EBPADMA resins. At higher diluent concentrations, EBPADMA resins provided the lowest photopolymerization reactivities. Optimum reactivities in the UDMA and EPBADMA resin systems were obtained with the addition of relatively small amounts of TEGDMA, whereas the Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system required near equivalent mole ratios for highest reactivity. The hydrogen bonding interactions, which substantially influence the Bis-GMA and UDMA resin series, were examined by FT-IR and resin viscosity. Synergistic effects of base and diluent monomer on the polymerization rate and the final conversion were found for the two base resins having hydrogen bonding interactions. The structures of the individual monomers, and consequently, the resin viscosities of the comonomer mixtures strongly influence both the rate and the extent of conversion of the photopolymerization process.