Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Photonic Online Learning: A Perspective



Sonia Buckley, Alexander Tait, Adam McCaughan, Bhavin Shastri


Neuromorphic systems promise to solve certain problems faster and with higher energy efficiency than traditional computing, by using the physics of the devices themselves for information processing. While initial results in photonic neuromorphic hardware are very promising, such hardware requires programming or ''training'' that is often power-hungry and time-consuming. In this article, we examine the online learning paradigm, where the machinery for training is built deeply into the hardware itself. We argue that some form of online learning will be necessary if photonic neuromorphic hardware is to achieve its true potential.


neuromorphic, photonics


Buckley, S. , Tait, A. , McCaughan, A. and Shastri, B. (2023), Photonic Online Learning: A Perspective, Nanophotonics, [online],, (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 9, 2023, Updated March 1, 2023