Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor at a precision of $10^{-11}$



Matthew T. Hummon, Songbai Kang, Douglas G. Bopp, Qing Li, Daron A. Westly, Sangsik Kim, Connor D. Fredrick, Scott A. Diddams, Kartik A. Srinivasan, John E. Kitching


We perform precision spectroscopy of rubidium confined in a micro-machined, 27~mm$^3$ volume, vapor cell using a collimated free space 120~$\bm{\mu}$m diameter laser beam derived directly from a single mode silicon nitride waveguide. With this optical-fiber integrated photonic spectrometer, with total volume of less than 1~cm$^3$, we demonstrate an optical frequency reference at 780~nm with a precision of $\bm{10^{-11}}$ from 1 to $\bm{10^4}$ seconds. The ability to leverage the benefits of both photonic integration and precision spectroscopy with this device will be an enabling technology for the next generation of quantum sensors and devices based on atomic vapors.


Diffraction gratings, Integrated optics devices, Laser stabilization, Metrology, Spectroscopy, atomic


Hummon, M. , Kang, S. , Bopp, D. , Li, Q. , Westly, D. , Kim, S. , Fredrick, C. , Diddams, S. , Srinivasan, K. and Kitching, J. (2018), Photonic chip for laser stabilization to an atomic vapor at a precision of $10^{-11}$, Optica, [online], (Accessed July 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 11, 2018, Updated February 1, 2019