[Superseded by FIPS 201-1 (March 2006): http://www.nist.gov/manuscript-publication-search.cfm?pub_id=50836
] FIPS 201 specifies the technical and operational requirements for interoperable PIV systems that issue smart cards as identification credentials and that use the cards to authenticate an individual's identity. FIPS 201 has been issued in two parts to allow for a smooth migration to a secure, reliable personal identification process. The first part of FIPS 201 (PIV I) describes the minimum requirements needed to meet the control and security objectives of HSPD 12, including the process to prove an individual's identity. The second part (PIV II) of FIPS 201 explains the many components and processes that will support a smart-card-based platform, including the PIV card and card and biometric readers. The specifications for PIV components support interoperability between components in systems and among the different department and agency systems. FIPS 201 responds to Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) 12, issued by President Bush on August 27, 2004, which cited the wide variations in the quality and security of the forms of identification used to gain access to federal and other facilities, and called for the development of a mandatory standard for secure and reliable forms of identification to be used throughout the federal government. The directive stated the government's requirements for a common government-wide identification system that would enhance security, increase government efficiency, reduce identity fraud, and protect personal privacy. The FIPS was approved by Carlos M. Gutierrez, the U.S. Secretary of Commerce, on February 25, 2005.