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Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors



Hildegard Ferraiolo, David A. Cooper, Salvatore Francomacaro, Ketan Mehta, Annie W. Sokol


[Superseded by FIPS 201-3 (January 2022)] This Standard specifies the architecture and technical requirements for a common identification standard for Federal employees and contractors. The overall goal is to achieve appropriate security assurance for multiple applications by efficiently verifying the claimed identity of individuals seeking physical access to Federally controlled government facilities and logical access to government information systems. The Standard contains the minimum requirements for a Federal personal identity verification system that meets the control and security objectives of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-12 [HSPD-12], including identity proofing, registration, and issuance. The Standard also provides detailed specifications that will support technical interoperability among PIV systems of Federal departments and agencies. It describes the card elements, system interfaces, and security controls required to securely store, process, and retrieve identity credentials from the card. [Supersedes FIPS 201-1 (March 2006 with June 2006 Change Notice 1):]
Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS) - 201-2
Report Number


architecture, authentication, authorization, biometrics, credential, cryptography, Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS), HSPD-12, identification, identity, infrastructure, model, Personal Identity Verification, PIV, public key infrastructure, PKI, validation, verification.


Ferraiolo, H. , Cooper, D. , Francomacaro, S. , Mehta, K. and Sokol, A. (2013), Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors, Federal Inf. Process. Stds. (NIST FIPS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 17, 2024)


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Created September 4, 2013, Updated January 26, 2022