Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Performance Improvements for the NIST 1 V Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer



Samuel P. Benz, Steven B. Waltman, Anna E. Fox, Paul D. Dresselhaus, Alain Rufenacht, Logan A. Howe, Robert E. Schwall, Nathan E. Flowers-Jacobs


The performance of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer has been improved such that it generates a root-mean-square (RMS) output voltage of 1 V with an operating current range greater than 2 mA. Our previous 1 V JAWS circuit achieved this same maximum voltage over a current range of 0.4 mA by operating every Josephson junction in its second quantum state. The newest circuit synthesizes 1 V waveforms with the junctions operating in the first quantum state. The voltage per array is doubled because the number of junctions in each array was able to be doubled through the use of improved microwave circuit designs that increased the bias uniformity to the junctions. We describe the circuit improvements and device operation, and we demonstrate the system capabilities by showing measured spectra of a 1 Hz sine wave and a dual-tone waveform. With only two arrays of the new circuit, we also synthesized a 128 mV sine wave without a compensation bias signal, which is one of the bias signals required for achieving 1 V. This is the same RMS output voltage achieved with the previous circuit using four arrays.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity


Digital-analog conversion, Josephson arrays, Quantization, Signal synthesis, Standards, Superconducting integrated circuits, Voltage measurement.


Benz, S. , Waltman, S. , Fox, A. , Dresselhaus, P. , Rufenacht, A. , Howe, L. , Schwall, R. and Flowers-Jacobs, N. (2014), Performance Improvements for the NIST 1 V Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, [online], (Accessed April 25, 2024)
Created November 10, 2014, Updated November 10, 2018