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Peanut Harmonic Expansion for a Fundamental Solution of Laplace's Equation in Flat-Ring Coordinates



Hans Volkmer, Lijuan Bi, Howard Cohl


We derive an expansion for the fundamental solution of Laplace's equation in flat-ring cyclide coordinates in three-dimensional Euclidean space. This expansion is a double series of products of functions that are harmonic in the interior and exterior of coordinate surfaces which are peanut shaped and orthogonal to surfaces which are flat-rings. These internal and external peanut harmonic functions are expressed in terms of Lame-Wangerin functions. Using the expansion for the fundamental solution, we derive an addition theorem for the azimuthal Fourier component in terms of the odd-half-integer degree Legendre function of the second kind as an infinite series in Lame-Wangerin functions. We also derive integral identities over the Legendre function of the second kind for a product of three Lame-Wangerin functions. In a limiting case we obtain the expansion of the fundamental solution in spherical coordinates.
Analysis Mathematica


aplace's equation, fundamental solution, separable curvilinear coordinate system, flat-ring cyclide coordinates, special functions, orthogonal polynomials.


Volkmer, H. , Bi, L. and Cohl, H. (2022), Peanut Harmonic Expansion for a Fundamental Solution of Laplace's Equation in Flat-Ring Coordinates, Analysis Mathematica, [online],, (Accessed May 29, 2024)


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Created April 21, 2022, Updated May 3, 2023