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Path Loss and Large-Scale Site and Frequency Diversity in Urban Peer-to-Peer Channels for Six Public Safety Frequency Bands



David W. Matolak, Christopher L. Holloway, Kate Remley, Qian Zhang, Qiong Wu


We report on peer-to-peer (ground-based) large scale wireless channel characteristics for an urban environment in six public safety bands, for five simultaneous receiving sites. Results are based upon measurements taken in Denver in July 2009 with stationary receivers and a pedestrian transmitter. The six frequencies at which we measured are (in MHz) 430, 750, 905, 1834, 2400, and 4860. We first add to the literature on path loss by providing models for path loss in both line of sight and non-line of sight conditions, quantifying path loss exponents and their variation over both frequency and space. Most significant is our quantification of large-scale diversity in the two dimensions of frequency and space. We quantify both site and frequency diversity available in this typical urban environment, and show that 5-site selection yields average gains of 15 dB or more in mean received power levels; 5-site selection diversity also reduces received power variation by as much as 17-29 dB, depending on frequency. Frequency diversity yields similar gains. By approximating received power levels as lognormal in distribution, we also describe the analytical method to approximate the cdf of the per-site, per-frequency, or maximum received power (over k sites or m frequency bands, or both). These path loss and diversity models should be useful for public safety and ad hoc communication system designers, and possibly for multiuser multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO), or cooperative diversity schemes.
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation


Propagation, Propagation Measurement, Radio Communication, Public Safety, Wireless Systems


Matolak, D. , Holloway, C. , Remley, K. , Zhang, Q. and Wu, Q. (2014), Path Loss and Large-Scale Site and Frequency Diversity in Urban Peer-to-Peer Channels for Six Public Safety Frequency Bands, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, [online], (Accessed April 20, 2024)
Created March 31, 2014, Updated October 12, 2021