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Optimization of Time-and Code-Division-Multiplexed Readout for Athena X-IFU



William B. Doriese, Simon R. Bandler, Saptarshi Chaudhuri, Carl S. Dawson, Edward V. Denison, Shannon M. Duff, Malcolm S. Durkin, C. T. FitzGerald, Joseph W. Fowler, Johnathon D. Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Kent D. Irwin, Young I. Joe, Kelsey M. Morgan, Galen C. O'Neil, Christine G. Pappas, Carl D. Reintsema, David A. Rudman, Stephen J. Smith, Robert W. Stevens, Daniel S. Swetz, Paul Szypryt, Joel N. Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Joel C. Weber, B. A. Young


Readout of a large, spacecraft-based array of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) requires careful management of the layout area and power dissipation of the cryogenic-circuit components. We present three optimizations of our time- (TDM) and code-division-multiplexing (CDM) systems for the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), a several-thousand-pixel-TES array for the planned Athena-satellite mission. The first optimization is a new readout scheme that is a hybrid of CDM and TDM. This C/TDM architecture balances CDM's noise advantage with TDM's layout compactness. The second is a redesign of a component: the shunt resistor that provides a dc-voltage bias to the TESs. A new layout and a thicker Pd-Au resistive layer combine to reduce this resistor's area by more than a factor of 5. Third, we have studied the power dissipated by the first-stage superconducting quantum-interference devices (SQUIDs) and the readout noise versus the critical current of the first-stage SQUIDs. As a result, the X-IFU TDM and C/TDM SQUIDs will have a specified junction critical current of 5 μA. Based on these design optimizations and TDM experiments described by Durkin et al. (these proceedings), TDM meets all requirements to be X-IFU's backup-readout option. Hybrid C/TDM is another viable option that could save spacecraft resources.
Proceedings Title
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Conference Dates
October 29-November 2, 2018
Conference Location
Seattle, WA
Conference Title
Applied Superconductivity Conference


transition-edge sensor, superconducting quantum-interference device, multiplexed readout, X-ray microcalorimeter, Athena satellite, Time-and Code-Division-Multiplexed readout, cryogenic circuits


Doriese, W. , Bandler, S. , Chaudhuri, S. , Dawson, C. , Denison, E. , Duff, S. , Durkin, M. , FitzGerald, C. , Fowler, J. , Gard, J. , Hilton, G. , Irwin, K. , Joe, Y. , Morgan, K. , O'Neil, G. , Pappas, C. , Reintsema, C. , Rudman, D. , Smith, S. , Stevens, R. , Swetz, D. , Szypryt, P. , Ullom, J. , Vale, L. , Weber, J. and Young, B. (2019), Optimization of Time-and Code-Division-Multiplexed Readout for Athena X-IFU, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Seattle, WA, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created March 18, 2019, Updated June 23, 2020