Andrew D. Ludlow, Martin M. Boyd, Jun Ye, E. Peik, P. O. Schmidt
Optical atomic clocks represent the state-of-the-art in the frontier of modern measurement science. In this article we provide a detailed review on the development of optical atomic clocks that are based on trapped single ions and many neutral atoms. We discuss important technical ingredients for optical clocks, and we present measurement precision and systematic uncertainty associated with some of the best clocks to date. We conclude with an outlook on the exciting prospect for clock applications.