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Opportunities in electrically tunable 2D materials beyond graphene: Recent progress and future outlook



Tom Vincent, Jiayun liang, simrjit singh, eli castanon, xiaotian zhang, deep jariwala, olga kazakova, zakaria al-balushi, Amber McCreary


The interest in two-dimensional and layered materials continues to expand, driven by the compelling properties of individual atomic layers that can be stacked and/or twisted into synthetic heterostructures. The plethora of electronic properties as well as the emergence of many different quasiparticles, including plasmons, polaritons, trions and excitons with large, tunable binding energies that all can be controlled and modulated through electrical means has given rise to many device applications. In addition, these materials exhibit both room-temperature spin and valley polarization, magnetism, superconductivity, piezoelectricity that are intricately dependent on the composition, crystal structure, stacking, twist angle, layer number and phases of these materials. Initial results on graphene exfoliated from single bulk crystals motivated the development of wide-area, high purity synthesis and heterojunctions with atomically clean interfaces. Now by opening this design space to new synthetic two-dimensional materials "beyond graphene", it is possible to explore uncharted opportunities in designing novel heterostructures for electrical tunable devices. To fully reveal the emerging functionalities and opportunities of these atomically thin materials in practical applications, this review highlights several representative and noteworthy research directions in the use of electrical means to tune these aforementioned physical and structural properties, with an emphasis on discussing major applications of beyond graphene 2D materials in tunable devices in the past few years and an outlook of what is to come in the next decade.
Applied Physics Reviews


2D materials, review, electrical tunability


Vincent, T. , liang, J. , singh, S. , castanon, E. , zhang, X. , Jariwala, D. , Kazakova, O. , al-balushi, Z. and McCreary, A. (2021), Opportunities in electrically tunable 2D materials beyond graphene: Recent progress and future outlook, Applied Physics Reviews, [online],, (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created November 30, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022