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Operando photoelectron spectromicroscopy of nanodevices: Correlating the surface chemistry and transport in SnO2 nanowire chemiresistors



Andrei Kolmakov, Trey Diulus, Kurt D. Benkstein, Stephen Semancik, Majid Kazemian, Matteo Amati, Maya Kiskinova, Luca Gregoratti


With size reduction of active elements in microelectronics to tens of nanometers and below, the effect of surface and interface properties on overall device performance becomes crucial. High resolution spectroscopic and imaging techniques provide a metrological route for characterization of these properties relevant to device diagnostics and failure analysis. With its roughly 100 nm spatial resolution, superior surface sensitivity, and approximately 200 meV spectral resolution, scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) stands out as a comprehensive tool to access the surface/interface composition of nanodevices, as well to provide chemical state designations and materials property evolutions upon treatment by thermal, electrical, chemical, radiative and other stimuli. Here we present a SPEM-on-device setup that combines X-ray spectromicroscopy with advanced NIST microhotplate technology to demonstrate new combined analytical and electrical measurements capabilities of this metrology platform for operando nanodevice characterization. Using model integrated SnO2 nanowire (NW) chemiresistor devices, the chemically induced alterations in the chemical state of the nanowire surface are correlated to the observed conductance changes, thus directly testing the receptor and transduction mechanisms for SnO2 NW conductometric chemical sensors.
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena


SPEM, XPS, microhotplate platform, nanowires, chemical sensors, operando mode, device diagnostics, failure analysis, beam induced current microscopy


Kolmakov, A. , Diulus, T. , Benkstein, K. , Semancik, S. , Kazemian, M. , Amati, M. , Kiskinova, M. and Gregoratti, L. (2023), Operando photoelectron spectromicroscopy of nanodevices: Correlating the surface chemistry and transport in SnO2 nanowire chemiresistors, Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, [online],, (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created June 29, 2023, Updated August 3, 2023