Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Numerical Studies of Gas-phase interactions of phosphorus-containing compounds with coflow diffusion flames



Gregory T. Linteris, Fumiaki Takahashi, Viswanath R. Katta, Valeri I. Babushok


The effects of phosphorus-containing compounds (PCCs) on the extinguishment and structure of methane-air coflow diffusion flames, in the cup-burner configuration, have been studied computationally. Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), trimethyl phosphate (TMP), or phosphoric acid is added to either the air or fuel flow. Time-dependent axisymmetric computation is performed with full gas-phase chemistry and transport to reveal the flame structure and inhibition process. A detailed chemical-kinetics model (77 species and 886 reactions) is constructed by combining the methane-oxygen combustion and phosphorus inhibition chemistry. A simple model for radiation from CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, and soot based on the optically thin-media assumption is incorporated into the energy equation. The inhibitor effectiveness is calculated as the minimum extinguishing concentrations (MECs) of CO2 (added to the oxidizer) as a function of the PCC loading (added to the oxidizer or fuel stream). The calculated MEC of CO2 without an inhibitor is in good agreement with the measured value. For moderate DMMP loading to the air (
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute


Fire retardant, Reaction inhibitor, Combustion enhancement, Extinguishment, Cup burner


Linteris, G. , Takahashi, F. , Katta, V. and Babushok, V. (2018), Numerical Studies of Gas-phase interactions of phosphorus-containing compounds with coflow diffusion flames, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, [online], (Accessed June 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created July 7, 2018, Updated June 2, 2021