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Novel Dimethacrylates with Quaternary Ammonium Functionalities for Reduced Bacteria Adhesion



Nancy J. Lin, Joseph M. Antonucci, Diana N. Zeiger, Kathy Tang, Bruce O. Fowler, Sheng Lin-Gibson


Biofilm growth and secondary caries have resulted in the failure of many dental composite restorations. One approach to address this issue is the modification of dental materials to reduce bacterial adhesion and biofilm growth. Quaternary ammonium salts have been shown to reduce bacterial growth in many applications1 and have the potential to do so in the oral environment. Our objective was to synthesize and characterize an ionic dimethacrylate (IDMA) containing a quaternary ammonium functionality for the purpose of reduced bacterial growth while retaining desirable physical properties of the monomer, including miscibility with other common dental monomers. Using the simple Menschutkin reaction, an ionic dimethacrylate (IDMA-1) with a quaternary ammonium group, low viscosity, and high miscibility with other dimethacrylates was synthesized. The incorporation of IDMA-1 into dimethacrylate polymers reduced initial bacterial adhesion and had an effect on early biofilm structure. However, IDMA-1 concentrations ≥ 20 % (by mass) were cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Therefore, IDMA-1 concentrations ≤ 10% are recommended for cell-contacting applications to reduce toxicity to mammalian cells while still retaining reduced initial bacterial growth. Additional studies are needed to investigate the viability of the bacteria colonization on the IDMA-1 samples and to quantify differences in biofilm growth due to IDMA-1.
Conference Dates
April 21-24, 2010
Conference Location
Seattle, WA
Conference Title
Society for Biomaterials 2010 Annual Meeting


antibacteria, bacteria, cytotoxicity, dental monomers, dimethacrylate, macrophages, quaternary ammonium, S. mutans


Lin, N. , Antonucci, J. , Zeiger, D. , Tang, K. , Fowler, B. and Lin-Gibson, S. (2010), Novel Dimethacrylates with Quaternary Ammonium Functionalities for Reduced Bacteria Adhesion, Society for Biomaterials 2010 Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created April 1, 2010, Updated March 25, 2017