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Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method



Behrang H. Hamadani, Andrew M. Shore, John F. Roller, Howard W. Yoon, Mark Campanelli


We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen Nth degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range.


solar cells, spectral, quantum efficiency, linearity


Hamadani, B. , Shore, A. , Roller, J. , Yoon, H. and Campanelli, M. (2016), Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method, Metrologia, [online], (Accessed June 13, 2024)


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Created January 13, 2016, Updated June 2, 2021