Coherent matter waves in the form of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) have led to the development of non-linear and quantum atom optics, the deBroglie-wave analogs to non-linear and quantum optics with light. Four-wave mixing of matter waves and combination of light waves and matter waves have been observed, leading to the development of phase-coherent matter-wave amplifiers. Solitons, non-dispersing propagating modes of the non-linear Schrodinger equation that governs BECs, have been created and observed to break up into vortices. In a BEC partitioned into a series of optical potential wells, reduced number fluctuations have been measured, the beginning of the field of quantum atom optics, which is concerned with the statisical properties and correlations in matter wave fields.
atom optics, Bose-Einstein condensation, deBroglie waves, solitons, squeezing
and Phillips, W.
Nonlinear and Quantum Atom Optics, Nature
(Accessed December 4, 2023)