Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Non-resonant phase sensitive approach for time resolved microwave conductivity in photoactive thin films



Jasleen K Bindra, Pragya Shrestha, Sebastian Engmann, Chad Cruz, David Gundlach, Emily Bittle, Jason Campbell


Time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) is a contactless technique utilized for the investigation of carrier density, transport properties, trapping phenomena, and recombination parameters in charge transport materials. Traditional TRMC methods rely on resonant cavities or resonators, which impose limitations on the frequency range and accuracy of measurements. In this study, we introduce an innovative approach that employs a non-resonant coplanar transmission line and a microwave interferometric detection scheme to investigate the phase-dependent complex microwave conductivity. Additionally, we demonstrate unique calibration techniques for determining the absolute complex microwave conductivity by combining transient photoconductivity (TPC) and electron spin resonance (ESR) as complementary methods. By utilizing a phase-sensitive microwave interferometer, our detection scheme significantly enhances measurement sensitivity and eliminates the need for a resonant cavity. This broadband detection system enables direct measurement of phase-dependent changes in film conductivity (Δσ). Moreover, it allows us to measure subtle variations in sample photoconductivity upon optical excitation and accommodates greatly restricted volumes (∼nL) consistent with typical device sizes. Here we demonstrate the utility of this technique on a series of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin films.
Materials Today Advances


Bindra, J. , Shrestha, P. , Engmann, S. , Cruz, C. , Gundlach, D. , Bittle, E. and Campbell, J. (2024), Non-resonant phase sensitive approach for time resolved microwave conductivity in photoactive thin films, Materials Today Advances, [online],, (Accessed July 13, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 7, 2024, Updated February 9, 2024