Noise Influence on Scattering-Parameter Measurements
Dazhen Gu, Jeffrey A. Jargon, Matthew J. Ryan, Anouk Hubrechsen
We present a general model of noise-influenced scattering (S) parameter measurements performed by a vector network analyzer (VNA). The residual error of the S-parameter due to the noise appears like a complex Gaussian quotient. The statistical analysis of the residual error is given and various statistical quantities and distributions are derived. Experiments were conducted on a two-port VNA to validate the noisy S-parameter model. It was shown that the uncertainty due to the noise is often critical in S-parameter measurements, in particular for S-parameters of a small magnitude.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Network analysis, noise, probability distribution, random variable, scattering parameter, uncertainty.