Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Noise-Induced Leakage and Counting Errors in the Electron Pump



Richard L. Kautz, Mark W. Keller, John M. Martinis


Computer simulations reveal that the lowest rates of leakage and counting errors observed in the electron pump can be explained by photon-assisted tunneling driven by 1/f noise. The noise power at microwave frequencies required to account for the observed errors is consistent with extrapolation of the low-frequency noise spectrum commonly recorded in single-electron transistors. Pump simulations, based on the ground-capacitance model, include cotunneling as well as single-junction photon-assisted tunneling. Quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for leakage and counting errors in pumps with four, five, six, and seven junctions in the limit of low temperatures and low counting rates. The effect of self-hearing is explored.
Physical Review B


capacitance standard, electron counting, electron pump, noise, photon-assisted tunneling, self heating, single electronics, single-electron transistor


Kautz, R. , Keller, M. and Martinis, J. (2000), Noise-Induced Leakage and Counting Errors in the Electron Pump, Physical Review B, [online], (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created December 15, 2000, Updated January 27, 2020