Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Nearly Ferromagnetic Spin-Triplet Superconductivity



Sheng N. Ran, Christoper Eckberg, Qing-Ping Ding, Yuji Furukawa, Tristin Metz, Shanta R. Saha, I Lin NMN Liu, Mark Zic, Hyunsoo Kim, Johnpierre N. Paglione, Nicholas Butch


One of the most interesting differences between spin triplet superconductors and the conventional spin singlet variety is the two-component triplet order parameter that allows spin up and down electrons to couple with different strength. Such nonunitary superconductors, in which spin up and down components have different gaps and an intrinsic spin polarization, are ideal platforms for studying topological phenomena1,2. So far, the only established examples of nonunitary pairing include the superfulid 3He in high magnetic fields3, known as the A1 phase, as well as ferromagnetic superconductors4. It is an intriguing question whether nonunitary pairing can happen in the absence of a magnetic field - external or internal - thus spontaneously breaking time reversal symmetry. Here we report the discovery of novel nonunitary spin-triplet superconductivity in UTe2, which closely resembles the ferromagnetic syperconductrs5-7 with dramatically enhanced transition temperature and upper critical field, and a paramagnetic normal state. UTe2 exhibits the crucial ingredients of a nonunitary triplet superconducting state, namely: an extremely large, anisotropic upper critical field Hc2, temperature independent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Knight shift in the superconducting state that can only be due to triplet pairing and a large residual normal electronic density of states indicating that half of the electrons remain ungapped. In other words, a spin up superfluid coexists with a spin down Fermi liquid. This discovery yields a new platform for encoding information using topological excitations and for manipulation of spin-polarized currents.


triplet superconductivity, nonunitary pairing, quantum critical ferromagnet


Ran, S. , Eckberg, C. , Ding, Q. , Furukawa, Y. , Metz, T. , Saha, S. , Liu, I. , Zic, M. , Kim, H. , Paglione, J. and Butch, N. (2019), Nearly Ferromagnetic Spin-Triplet Superconductivity, Science, [online],, (Accessed May 25, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 18, 2019, Updated March 8, 2024