Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Multiple-camera defocus imaging of ultracold atomic gases



Ian Spielman, Francisco Salces Carcoba, Yuchen Yue, Seiji Sugawa, Abigail Perry


In cold atom experiments, each image of light refracted and absorbed by an atomic ensemble carries a remarkable amount of information. Numerous imaging techniques including absorption, fluorescence, and phase-contrast are commonly used. Other techniques such as off-resonance defocused imaging (ORDI, [1–4]), where an in-focus image is deconvolved from a defocused image, have been demonstrated but find only niche applications. The ORDI inversion process introduces systematic artifacts because it relies on regularization to account for missing information at some spatial frequencies. In the present work, we extend ORDI to use multiple cameras simultaneously at degrees of defocus, eliminating the need for regularization and its attendant artifacts. We demonstrate this technique by imaging Bose-Einstein condensates, and show that the statistical uncertainties in the measured column density using the multiple-camera off-resonance defocused (McORD) imaging method are competitive with absorption imaging near resonance and phase contrast imaging far from resonance. Experimentally, the McORD method may be incorporated into existing set-ups with minimal additional equipment.
Optics Express


Image reconstruction, Bose-Einstein condensate


Spielman, I. , Salces Carcoba, F. , Yue, Y. , Sugawa, S. and Perry, A. (2021), Multiple-camera defocus imaging of ultracold atomic gases, Optics Express, [online], (Accessed June 22, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 13, 2021, Updated October 14, 2021