Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

A Molecular Model for Toughening in Double-Network Hydrogels



Vijay Tirumala, Sanghun Lee, Taiki Tominaga, Eric K. Lin, Jian P. Gong, Paul D. Butler, Wen-Li Wu


A molecular mechanism is proposed for the toughness enhancement observed in double network (DN) hydrogels prepared from poly (2 acrylamido, 2-methyl, 1-propanesulfonicacid) (PAMPS) polyelectrolyte network and polyacrylamide (PAAm) linear polymer. It is an extension of the phenomenological model set forth recently by Gong et al (Macromolecules 2007, 40, 6658-6664). This mechanism rationalizes the changes in molecular structure of the DN-gel constituents observed via in-situ neutron scattering measurements, the composition dependence of the solution viscosity, and the thermodynamic interaction parameters of PAMPS and PAAm molecules obtained previously from neutron scattering studies. More specifically, this proposed mechanism provides an explanation for the observed periodic compositional fluctuations in the micrometer range induced by large strain deformation.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B


hydrogels, tough, neutron scattering, stress transfer, molecular model


Tirumala, V. , Lee, S. , Tominaga, T. , Lin, E. , Gong, J. , Butler, P. and Wu, W. (2008), A Molecular Model for Toughening in Double-Network Hydrogels, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, [online], (Accessed May 24, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 18, 2008, Updated February 19, 2017