Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Modeling Load Variations with Artificial Neural Networks to Improve on Wafer OSLT Calibrations



Jeffrey Jargon, P. Kirby, Kuldip Gupta, Lawrence P. Dunleavy, T. Weller


This paper demonstrates that on-wafer open-short-load-thru (OSLT) calibrations of vector network analyzers can be improved by applying artificial neural networks (ANNs) to model the correlation between DC resistance and RF variations in load terminations. The ANNs are trained with measurement data obtained from a benchmark multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) calibration. The open, short, and thru standards do not vary significantly from wafer to wafer, so we also model these standards with ANNs using ANNs trained with calibrated measurement data chosen from an arbitrary wafer. We assess the accuracy of five OSLT calibrations with varying load terminations using the ANN-modeled standards, and find that they compare favorably (a difference of less than 0.04 in magnitude at most frequencies) to the benchmark multiline TRL calibraion over a 66 GHz bandwidth. We demonstrate that ANN models offer a number of advantages over using calibrated measurement files or equivalent circuit models including ease of use, reduced calibration times, and compactness.
Proceedings Title
Tech. Dig., Automatic Radio Frequency Techniques Group (ARFTG) Conference
Conference Dates
November 30-December 1, 2000
Conference Location
Boulder, CO


artifical neural network, calibration, model, network analyzer, standards, load


Jargon, J. , Kirby, P. , Gupta, K. , Dunleavy, L. and Weller, T. (2000), Modeling Load Variations with Artificial Neural Networks to Improve on Wafer OSLT Calibrations, Tech. Dig., Automatic Radio Frequency Techniques Group (ARFTG) Conference, Boulder, CO (Accessed June 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created November 30, 2000, Updated October 12, 2021