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Modeling the Influence of Limestone Filler on Cement Hydration in CEMHYD3D



Dale P. Bentz


The ASTM C150 standard specification for portland cement now permits the addition of up to 5 % limestone filler. While these and much higher levels of limestone filler substitution have been employed in Europe and elsewhere for many years, the change in the ASTM standard was a long and slow process. Having computational tools to assist in better understanding the influence of limestone filler additions on cement hydration and microstructure development should facilitate the acceptance of these more economical and ecological blended materials. With this in mind, the CEMHYD3D computer model for cement hydration has been extended and preliminarily validated for the incorporation of limestone fillers at substitution levels up to 20 % by mass. The hydration model has been modified to incorporate both the influence of limestone as a fine filler, providing numerous surfaces for the nucleation and growth of hydration products, and its relatively slow reaction with the hydrating cement to form a monocarboaluminate (AFmc) phase, similar to the AFm phase formed in ordinary portland cement. The influence of limestone substitutions on hydration rates is seen to be a strong function of water-to-solids ratio, as a 20 % limestone substitution substantially modifies the effective water-to-cement ratio of the blended mixture.
Cement and Concrete Research


blended cements, building technology, filler, hyration, modeling


Bentz, D. (2006), Modeling the Influence of Limestone Filler on Cement Hydration in CEMHYD3D, Cement and Concrete Research, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created February 1, 2006, Updated February 19, 2017