Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Modeling the Fillet Lifting Defect



Clare Bailey, William J. Boettinger


A multi-physics simulation tool is described which has the ability to simulate fluid flow, heat transfer including solidification, and stress evolution in a integrated manner. This modelling framework is used to predict the behavior of two solder materials -- the tin-lead eutectic (Sn63Pb37) and Sn95Pb5 -- during their solidification and cooling in a copper coated through hole. This integrated modelling approach to both solidification and stress is used to predict the transient nature in which the materials solidify and stress. Comparisons between both materials are given where the low lead content solder is seen to develop higher tensile stress near the solder/pad interface. This many contribute to a defect known as fillet lift.
ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering


fillet lifting, fillet liftoff, hot tearing, modelling, pb-free solder, stress analysis


Bailey, C. and Boettinger, W. (1999), Modeling the Fillet Lifting Defect, ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering (Accessed June 15, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created September 10, 1999, Updated October 12, 2021