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Mitigating finite bandwidth effects in time-division- multiplexed SQUID readout of TES arrays



Malcolm Durkin, Joseph S. Adams, Simon Bandler, James A. Chervenak, Ed Denison, W.Bertrand (Randy) Doriese, Shannon Duff, Fred M. Finkbeiner, Joseph Fowler, Johnathon Gard, Gene C. Hilton, Ruslan Hummatov, Kent Irwin, Young I. Joe, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Antoine R. Miniussi, Kelsey Morgan, Galen O'Neil, Christine Pappas, Frederick S. Porter, Carl D. Reintsema, Kazuhiro Sakai, Stephen J. Smith, Robert W. Stevens, Daniel Swetz, Paul Szypryt, Joel Ullom, Leila R. Vale, Nicholas A. Wakeham


Time division multiplexing (TDM) is being developed as the readout technology of the X-ray integral field unit (X-IFU), a 3,168-pixel X-ray transition-edge sensor (TES) imaging spectrometer that is part of the European Space Agency's Athena satellite mission. Recent improvements in the low X-ray event count rate performance of TDM have been driven by increases in multiplexer bandwidth and the mitigation of settling transients. These methods and design changes have improved the 32-row multiplexed resolution of a NASA LPA 2.5a array from an initial (2.73 ± 0.03) eV to (1.97 ± 0.01) eV resolution at 5.9 keV. We discuss these recent advances in TDM readout, which have been implemented in an 8-column × 32-row spectrometer that will be deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, and present a model that will in-form the design of future systems.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity


transition-edge sensors, superconducting quantum interference devices, multiplexed readout, Athena, X-IFU


Durkin, M. , Adams, J. , Bandler, S. , Chervenak, J. , Denison, E. , Doriese, W. , Duff, S. , Finkbeiner, F. , Fowler, J. , Gard, J. , Hilton, G. , Hummatov, R. , Irwin, K. , Joe, Y. , Kelley, R. , Kilbourne, C. , Miniussi, A. , Morgan, K. , O'Neil, G. , Pappas, C. , Porter, F. , Reintsema, C. , Sakai, K. , Smith, S. , Stevens, R. , Swetz, D. , Szypryt, P. , Ullom, J. , Vale, L. and Wakeham, N. (2021), Mitigating finite bandwidth effects in time-division- multiplexed SQUID readout of TES arrays, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, [online], (Accessed June 16, 2024)


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Created March 11, 2021, Updated April 20, 2023