Many large scale identity management applications require storage and exchange of standardized minutiae templates. Minutia templates offer a more space efﬁcient, less resource intensive, and more cost effective alternative to raw images. Recent minutiae interoperability tests (ILO, MTIT, MI NEX ) all reported variation in minutia selection and placement as the major factor affecting interoperability. This paper quantiﬁes their effects and investigates how variation in selection and placement of minutia from different suppliers relates to loss of performance compared with proprietary templates. We concur with MTIT findings that conformance testing methodologies for evaluating the semantic content of minutia templates is essential and interoperability can be improved by closer adherence to the minutia placement requirement deﬁned in a standard.