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Microscale Photopatterning of Through-thickness Modulus in a Monolithic and Functionally Graded 3D Printed Part

Published

Author(s)

Asais C. Uzcategui, Callie I. Higgins, John Hergert, Andrew Tomaschke, Victor Crespo-Cuevas, Virginia L. Ferguson, Stephanie Bryant, Robert R. McLeod, Jason Killgore

Abstract

3D printing is transforming traditional processing methods in applications ranging from tissue engineering to optics. To fulfill its maximum potential, 3D printing requires a robust technique for producing structures with precise three-dimensional (x, y and z) control of mechanical properties. Previous efforts to realize precise spatial control of modulus within 3D printed parts have largely focused on low-resolution (mm to cm scale) multi-material processes and grayscale approaches that spatially vary the modulus in just the x-y plane. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach for through-thickness (z) voxelated control of mechanical properties within a single-material, monolithic part. Precise quantitative control over the local modulus is enabled by a predictive model that incorporates the observed non-reciprocal dose response of the material. The model is validated by a novel application of atomic force microscopy to map the through-thickness modulus on multi-layered 3D parts. Overall, both smooth gradations (30 MPa over ≈75 m) and sharp step-changes (30 MPa over ≈5 m) in modulus are realized in PEGDA-based 3D scaffolds, paving the way for advancements in tissue engineering, 4D printing and graded metamaterials.
Citation
Small

Citation

Uzcategui, A. , Higgins, C. , Hergert, J. , Tomaschke, A. , Crespo-Cuevas, V. , Ferguson, V. , Bryant, S. , McLeod, R. and Killgore, J. (2020), Microscale Photopatterning of Through-thickness Modulus in a Monolithic and Functionally Graded 3D Printed Part, Small, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=930808 (Accessed August 14, 2022)
Created December 24, 2020, Updated October 14, 2021