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Microfabricated Atomic Clocks



John E. Kitching, Svenja A. Knappe, Li-Anne Liew, P Schwindt, V Shah, John Moreland, Leo W. Hollberg


We summarize the development of microfabricated atomic frequency references at NIST. The physics packages of these devices have volumes near 10 mm3, power dissipation below 150 mW and can potentially achieve a fractional frequency instability in the range of 10-11 over long time periods. A fully integrated frequency reference could find application in portable, battery-operated devices such as global positioning system (GPS) receivers and cellular telephones.
Conference Title
IEEE Intl. Conf. Microelectromechanical Systems


Atomic clock, chip-scale atomic clock, frequency reference, magnetometer, microfabrication, micromachining, surface-emitting laser


Kitching, J. , Knappe, S. , Liew, L. , Schwindt, P. , Shah, V. , Moreland, J. and Hollberg, L. (2005), Microfabricated Atomic Clocks, IEEE Intl. Conf. Microelectromechanical Systems, [online], (Accessed July 23, 2024)


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Created January 30, 2005, Updated February 17, 2017