Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Metrologies for Performance of Impact Mitigating Materials



Aaron M. Forster, Michael A. Riley


Soft non-linear materials are used to mitigate energy transfer between objects during high rate or frequency events. These impact mitigating materials (IMM) are used in a wide range of applications such as isolating rotating equipment, protecting buildings during earthquakes, and protecting humans from blunt impact. While IMMs have been successful at protecting electronic equipment, automobiles, and buildings for decades, the threats for these applications are specific in maximum energy, velocity, and impact angle. Protecting the brain from a concussion in sports is a less concrete challenge. Impact energies and velocities cover a broad range depending on the sport and participant skill. The angle of impact and frequency of impact are not consistent depending on position and whether the head is impacting another head, body part, or ground. The rise in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) rates [1-2] in sports such as football, hockey, and lacrosse suggests new materials and metrologies are required to protect humans from blunt impact.
Proceedings Title
Society of Experimental Mechanics Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials
Conference Dates
June 12-15, 2017
Conference Location
indianapolis, IN, US
Conference Title
Society of Experimental Mechanics Proceedings


impact, foam, soft materials


Forster, A. and Riley, M. (2017), Metrologies for Performance of Impact Mitigating Materials, Society of Experimental Mechanics Mechanics of Time Dependent Materials, indianapolis, IN, US (Accessed June 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 12, 2017, Updated March 6, 2023