Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Methodologies and Implementation of Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Process Control



Ho Yeung


Part quality in additive manufacturing (AM) is highly dependent on process control, but there is a lack of adequate AM control methods and standards. In particular, a standard programing language (such as G-code/M-code for traditional machine tools) is not well defined, and there is no uniform/transparent way of implementing laser scan strategies among the AM machine vendors. Many earlier studies of the AM process are based on the control parameters allowed access by the machine vendors, such as the nominal laser scanning speed, power, and powder layer thickness. These studies provide invaluable information on the understanding of the AM process fundamental, but meanwhile are also limited by the lack of transparency of the underlying AM control implementations. Due to varying proprietary control methods, the build quality could be very different on different machines even with an identical strategy/nominal control parameters. This creates great uncertainty in part qualification, and difficulty in the build process study and optimization. In this chapter, the methodologies and implementation of the control of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process are discussed. The chapter is divided into three sections. The fundamentals for the laser focus, power, and position controls are first introduced. Sample scan strategies on commercial machines are then studied from the laser control perspective, with the limitation and consideration in their implementation suggested. Last but not least, an open platform AM control framework is provided. The advanced process control methods, such as point-wise control and real-time feedback, are highlighted. The chapter provides both fundamentals on LPBF process control and insight into how the different control implementations can affect/improve the build quality.
ASM Handbook Volume 24A
Publisher Info
ASM International, Materials Park, OH


Yeung, H. (2023), Methodologies and Implementation of Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Process Control, ASM Handbook Volume 24A, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, [online],, (Accessed May 26, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 30, 2023, Updated October 12, 2023