Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Measurements of trapped-ion heating rates with exchangeable surfaces in close proximity



Dustin A. Hite, Kyle S. McKay, Shlomi Salman Kotler, Dietrich G. Leibfried, David J. Wineland, David P. Pappas


Electric-field noise from the surfaces of ion-trap electrodes couples to the ion’s charge causing heating of the ion’s motional modes. This heating limits the fidelity of quantum gates implemented in quantum information processing experiments. The exact mechanism that gives rise to electric-field noise from surfaces is not well-understood and remains an active area of research. In this work, we detail experiments intended to measure ion motional heating rates with exchangeable surfaces positioned in close proximity to the ion, as a sensor to electric-field noise. We have prepared samples with various surface conditions, characterized in situ with scanned probe microscopy and electron spectroscopy, ranging in degrees of cleanliness and structural order. The heating-rate data, however, show no significant difference as expected for the disparate surfaces probed. These results suggest that the driving mechanism for electric-field noise from surfaces is more than that due to thermal excitations alone.
MRS Advances


Hite, D. , McKay, K. , , S. , Leibfried, D. , Wineland, D. and Pappas, D. (2017), Measurements of trapped-ion heating rates with exchangeable surfaces in close proximity, MRS Advances, [online], (Accessed July 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 15, 2017, Updated February 19, 2017