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Measurement Challenges for Scaling Superconductor-based Quantum Computers

Published

Author(s)

Pete Hopkins, Manuel Castellanos Beltran, John Biesecker, Paul Dresselhaus, Anna Fox, Logan Howe, David Olaya, Adam Sirois, Dylan Williams, Samuel P. Benz, Alirio De Jesus Soares Boaventura, Justus Brevik

Abstract

Global investment in the research and development of quantum information systems by industry, government, and academic institutions continues to accelerate and is expected to reach over $16B by 2027 [1]. Systems based on optical photons, atoms or ions, spins in semiconductors, and superconductor circuits are all being pursued. One of the most challenging technology hurdles for all these paradigms is scaling to the large number of qubits required to make a quantum computer (QC) capable of solving relevant problems that cannot be efficiently solved using a conventional computer. In the case of a QC using superconducting qubits with state-of-the-art gate error rates, it is estimated that greater than 1 million physical qubits will be required [2]. Scaling superconductor-based QCs to this size from the present 102 qubits [3] will require designing, implementing, and testing large, cryogenic microwave systems for initialization, control of gate/entangling operations, and readout of 106 physical qubits using millions of low-power microwave signals. The goal of the NIST research highlighted below is to assist the nascent QC industry in making significant advances in 1) cryogenic on-wafer microwave testing, 2) measurement tools, and 3) calibration standards that will be required for accurate modeling and simulation, design verification, and fabrication process control in the development of large-scale QCs.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of International Conference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrology for Nanoelectronics (FCMN 2022)
Conference Dates
June 20-23, 2022
Conference Location
Monterey, CA, US
Conference Title
International Conference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrology for Nanoelectronics (FCMN 2022)

Keywords

Quantum computing, superconductor qubits, qubit control, qubit readout, microwave calibrations

Citation

Hopkins, P. , Castellanos Beltran, M. , Biesecker, J. , Dresselhaus, P. , Fox, A. , Howe, L. , Olaya, D. , Sirois, A. , Williams, D. , Benz, S. , Soares Boaventura, A. and Brevik, J. (2022), Measurement Challenges for Scaling Superconductor-based Quantum Computers, Proceedings of International Conference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrology for Nanoelectronics (FCMN 2022), Monterey, CA, US, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=934206 (Accessed June 12, 2024)

Issues

If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact reflib@nist.gov.

Created June 23, 2022, Updated November 29, 2022