Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks – Workshop Summary



Aaron N. Johnson, Rodney A. Bryant, Tamae M. Wong, James R. Whetstone, Eric Harman, Woong Kang, Keith A. Gillis, Hsin-Hung Lee, Iosif I. Shinder, Liang Zhang


On April 20-21, 2015, NIST hosted a workshop that, through measurement science, enabled the owners of stationary sources (primarily the electric power industry) and their regulatory agencies (federal and state) to better characterize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The intended result was to create sound scientific data that can be used to determine if local and global emission targets are being met. This workshop brought together diverse stakeholders to share perspectives, discuss strengths and weakness of current CO2 flux measurement protocols, and introduce new methods that reduce uncertainty and clearly tie emissions measurements to national standards.
Special Publication (NIST SP) - 1201
Report Number


Smokestack, Carbon Dioxide, CO2, flow measurement, Greenhouse gas, RATA, CEMS, GHG, Continuous Emissions Measurement Systems, Relative Accuracy Test Audit


Johnson, A. , Bryant, R. , Wong, T. , Whetstone, J. , Harman, E. , Kang, W. , Gillis, K. , Lee, H. , Shinder, I. and Zhang, L. (2016), Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks – Workshop Summary, Special Publication (NIST SP), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 16, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 20, 2016, Updated November 10, 2018