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Measurement-Based Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Channel Sparsity for LoS and OLoS Scenarios



William Sloane, Camillo Gentile, Jelena Senic


The millimeter-wave (mmWave) channel is often assumed to be sparse due to significant diffraction losses compared to microwave bands resulting in fewer paths reaching the receiver. While the sparsity property has been used in a significant amount of literature relating to compressed channel sensing and hybrid beamforming techniques, a lack of a quantitative analysis of mmWave sparsity exists for both indoor and outdoor channels.Therefore, using measurements in five different environments at 60 GHz, we used validated measures of sparsity including the Gini Index (with small sample bias correction), Spatial Degrees of Freedom and Ricean K-Factor to evaluate the sparsity across the environments. It is found that the mmWave channel is fundamentally sparse across all environments. The indoor environments exhibited slightly less sparsity than the outdoor environments due to more reflectors and scatterers. In obstructed line of sight scenarios, the sparsity reduces significantly, due to the lack of the LoS path which contains a significant proportion of the total energy.
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters


Millimeter-Wave, mmWave, Sparsity, Channel Measurements, Modelling


Sloane, W. , Gentile, C. and Senic, J. (2022), Measurement-Based Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Channel Sparsity for LoS and OLoS Scenarios, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, [online], (Accessed June 13, 2024)


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Created November 22, 2022, Updated January 22, 2024