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MathTools: An Open API for Convenient MathML Handling



Howard S. Cohl, Andre Greiner Petter, Moritz Schubotz, Bela Gipp


Mathematical formulae carry complex and essential semantic in- formation in a variety of formats. Accessing this information with different sys- tems requires a standardized machine-readable format that is capable of encod- ing presentational and semantic information. Even though MathML is the offi- cial standard for representing mathematical expressions, we could identify only very few systems, which use the full descriptiveness of MathML. MathML’s high complexity results in a steep learning curve for newcomers. We hypothe- size that this complexity is the reason why many community-driven projects refrain from using MathML, and instead develop problem-specific data formats for this purpose. We provide a user-friendly open-source application program- ming interface for controlling MathML data. Our API allows one to create, manipulate and efficiently access commonly needed information in presen- tation and content MathML. Our interface also provides tools for calculating differences and similarities between MathML expressions. It also allows one to represent the distance between expressions using different measuring algo- rithms. In addition, we provide adapters for numerous conversion tools and the canonicalization project. Our developed toolkit helps in the processing of math- ematics for digital libraries, without the need for developing XML expertise.
Proceedings Title
Conference on Intelligent Computer Mathematics 2018
Conference Dates
August 13-17, 2018
Conference Location


MathML, API, Toolkit, Java


Cohl, H. , Greiner, A. , Schubotz, M. and Gipp, B. (2018), MathTools: An Open API for Convenient MathML Handling, Conference on Intelligent Computer Mathematics 2018, Hagenberg, -1, [online], (Accessed June 4, 2023)
Created July 17, 2018, Updated October 8, 2020