C A. Handwerker, E E. de Kluizenaar, K Suganuma, Frank W. Gayle
Beginning in 1991, the microelectronics community worldwide became increasingly aware of the possibility of being required, by law, by tax, or by market pressure, to replace tin-lead eutectic solders in electronic assemblies. Over the ten years that followed, separate groups formed in the United States, Europe, and Japan to examine solder-based alternatives to tin-lead eutectic solder and to understand the implications of such a change before it becomes necessary. The following studies are featured in this chapter: the NCMS Lead-Free Solder Project and the NCMS High Temperature Fatigue Resistant Solder Project from the US, the JIEP and JEIDA projects from Japan, and the IDEALS Lead-Free Solder Project from the European Union (EU). Based on these studies, the microelectronics community gained sufficient experience with the performance of lead-free solders to begin addressing lead-free assembly to assess lead-free issues, including manufacturing yield, process windows for complex boards, and component survivability.
McGraw Hill Issues and Implementation of Pb Free Technology in Microelectronics
, de Kluizenaar, E.
, Suganuma, K.
and Gayle, F.
Major International Lead (Pd)-Free Solder Studies, McGraw Hill Issues and Implementation of Pb Free Technology in Microelectronics
(Accessed June 7, 2023)