Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Maintenance Costs and Advanced Maintenance Techniques in Manufacturing Machinery: Survey and Analysis



Douglas Thomas, Brian Weiss


The costs/benefits associated with investing in advanced maintenance techniques is not well understood. Using data collected from manufacturers, we estimate the national losses due to inadequate maintenance and make comparisons between those that rely on reactive maintenance, preventive maintenance, and predictive maintenance. The total annual costs/losses associated with maintenance is estimated to be on average $222.0 billion, as estimated using Monte Carlo analysis. Respondents were categorized into three groups and compared. The first group is the top 50 % of respondents that rely on reactive maintenance, measured in expenditures. The remaining respondents were split in half based on their reliance on predictive maintenance. The top 50 % of respondents in using reactive maintenance, measured in expenditures, compared to the other respondents suggests that there are substantial benefits of moving away from reactive maintenance toward preventive and/or predictive maintenance. The bottom 50 %, which relies more heavily on predictive and preventive maintenance, had 52.7 % less unplanned downtime and 78.5 % less defects. The comparison between the smaller two groups, which rely more heavily on preventive and predictive maintenance, shows that there is 18.5 % less unplanned downtime and 87.3 % less defects for those that rely more on predictive than preventive.
International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management


maintenance, manufacturing, predictive maintenance, reactive maintenance, preventive maintenance


Thomas, D. and Weiss, B. (2021), Maintenance Costs and Advanced Maintenance Techniques in Manufacturing Machinery: Survey and Analysis, International Journal of Prognostics and Health Management, [online],, (Accessed July 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 25, 2021, Updated June 23, 2021