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We review advances in low-temperature detector (LTD) arrays for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, with a particular emphasis on imaging arrays. We briefly motivate the science case, which has spurred a large number of independent experimental efforts. We describe the challenges associated with CMB polarization measurements, and how these challenges impact LTD design. Key aspects of an ideal CMB polarization imaging array are developed and compared to the current state of the art. These aspects include dual-polarization sensitivity, background-limited detection over a 10:1 bandwidth ratio, and frequency-independent angular responses. Although existing technology lacks all of this capability, today's CMB imaging arrays achieve many of these ideals and are highly advanced superconducting integrated circuits. Deployed arrays map the sky with pixels that contain elements for beam formation, polarization diplexing, passband definition in multiple frequency channels, and bolometric sensing. Several detector architectures are presented. We comment on the implementation of both transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors for CMB applications. Lastly, we discuss fabrication capability in the context of next-generation instruments that call for ∼106 sensors.
Journal of Low Temperature Physics
low-temperature detector, LTD, cosmic microwave background, CMB, polarization experiments, imaging arrays, polarization measurements, dual-polarization sensitivity, background-limited detection, 10:1 bandwidth ratio, frequency-independent angular responses, pixels, beam formation, polarization duplexing, multiple frequency channels, bolometric sensing