Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

A Low-Cost Density Reference Phantom for Computed Tomography



Zachary H. Levine, Ming-Dong Li, Anthony P. Reeves, David F. Yankelevitz, Joseph J. Chen, Eliot L. Siegel, Adele P. Peskin, Diana N. Zeiger


We have characterized a commercially-available polyurethane foam which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. We find that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -700 Hounsfield units. This range is important, as it is co-incident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful to make the diagnosis of emphysema more systematic.
Medical Physics


Lung cancer , density reference phantom


Levine, Z. , Li, M. , Reeves, A. , Yankelevitz, D. , Chen, J. , Siegel, E. , Peskin, A. and Zeiger, D. (2009), A Low-Cost Density Reference Phantom for Computed Tomography, Medical Physics (Accessed December 4, 2023)
Created January 2, 2009, Updated February 17, 2017